Name of Diseases
Typhoid Fever and Paratyphoid fever
Typhoid and paratyphoid fever is a major cause of illness in most developing countries, including Bangladesh. It remains the most common bloodstream infection in many resource-poor settings. It requires the ingestion of at least 105 Salmonella bacteria at a time to produce typhoid. Recently estimated 22 million new typhoid cases occur each year in the world, with some 0.2 million of these resulting in death. Paratyphoid fever is similar in its symptoms to typhoid fever, but typhoid fever has a higher fatality rate. Bangladesh is located in a region where typhoid is highly endemic.
Source of Infection
Food & Drinks (Raw vegetables, meat, seafood, milk & water)
- Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (Salmonella Typhi): Typhoid Fever
- Salmonella enterica serovar Paratyphi (Salmonella Paratyphi): Paratyphoid Fever
Size & Shape: Rod Shaped 0.7 – 1.5 µm by 2.0 – 5.0 µm
Source of contamination: Stool and urine of infected persons
Note: Salmonella absorbs oxygen as a parasite from human body to live and reproduction. Human may be infected due to take Salmonella contaminated water and food, sometimes may die also. Case-fatality rates of 10% can be reduced to less than 1% with appropriate antibiotic therapy. Children and Adolescents (up to 19 years) are more vulnerable to this infection.
The Root of transmission: Digestive system (Mouth & Nose)
- Fever (Temperature ≤1030 F and persist 7 days or more)
- Nausea, Vomiting
- Diarrhea (Sometimes bloody)
- Urinary Tract Infection (UTI), Nephritis
- Abdominal pain or cramp
Incubation Period: 8 – 14 days
Symptoms existence: 2 – 6 weeks with possibilities of recurrent contamination
Management of Typhoid Patients
- Oral Saline for dehydration management
- Consultation with medical doctor as soon as possible
- Proper antibiotic (Directed by physician) after confirm diagnosis
Vaccines for Typhoid
- There are three types of typhoid vaccines licensed for use:*
- Typhoid conjugate vaccine (TCV)
- The unconjugated Vi polysaccharide (ViPS) vaccine
- The live attenuated Ty21a vaccine.
In 2018, WHO Recommended
- The first prequalified TCV for intramuscular administration of a single dose (0.5 mL) in children ≥ 6 months of age and in adults up to 45 years of age.
- The ViPS vaccine is recommended for intramuscular or subcutaneous administration in individuals 2 years of age and older.
- Ty21a vaccine is available in enteric-coated capsules recommended for oral administration on alternate days in a three-dose regimen in persons above 6 years of age.
Repeat vaccination is recommended for ViPS every three years, and for Ty21a every three to seven years, depending on national policies. There are currently no licensed vaccines against paratyphoid fever and iNTS disease.
Cause of Salmonella Contamination
- Defective sewage system (Housing or farming)
- Defective or unclean water supply system
Prevention from Salmonella Pollution
- Drink safe water
- Maintain hygiene and use safe water including cooking food
- Develop sewage and water supply system, sanitary disposal of excreta
- Preserve separately raw and cooked food
- Use RO purifier to ensure safe drinking and kitchen water
MICRO Filtration: Pore size: 0.1 micron
ULTRA Filtration: Pore size: 0.01 micron
NANO Filtration: Pore size: 0.001 micron
Reverse Osmosis (RO) Filtration: Pore size: 0.0001 micron
Note: The pore size of membrane of RO Purifier is too small than the size of Salmonella. For this reason only RO purifier with accurate size (0.0001 microns) of membrane capable to prevent Salmonella and ensure 100% safe drinking & kitchen water Solution.
To ensure pure drinking water and health safety ULTIMA CARE brought RO Purifier for you
Dr. Hefjur Rahman Ojaer
BUMS (DU), MPH (NIPSOM – BSMMU)