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RO Purifier: Safe Water for Prevention of Enteric Fever

RO Purifier: Safe Water for Prevention of Enteric Fever

Prevention of Enteric Fever is a challenge for everybody. Social awareness is the key to preventing enteric fever.

Name of Diseases

Typhoid Fever and Paratyphoid fever

Typhoid and paratyphoid fever is a major cause of illness in most developing countries, including Bangladesh. It remains the most common bloodstream infection in many resource-poor settings. It requires the ingestion of at least 105 Salmonella bacteria at a time to produce typhoid. Recently estimated 22 million new typhoid cases occur each year in the world, with some 0.2 million of these resulting in death. Paratyphoid fever is similar in its symptoms to typhoid fever, but typhoid fever has a higher fatality rate. Bangladesh is located in a region where typhoid is highly endemic.  Prevention of enteric fever is a gradual process and only social awareness can mitigate the disease.

prevention of enteric fever

Source of Infection

Food & Drinks (Raw vegetables, meat, seafood, milk & water)

Responsible Microorganisms

Size & Shape: Rod Shaped 0.7 – 1.5 µm by 2.0 – 5.0 µm

Source of contamination: Stool and urine of infected persons

Note: Salmonella absorbs oxygen as a parasite from human body to live and reproduction. Human may be infected due to take Salmonella contaminated water and food, sometimes may die also. Case-fatality rates of 10% can be reduced to less than 1% with appropriate antibiotic therapy. Children and Adolescents (up to 19 years) are more vulnerable to this infection.

The Root of transmission: Digestive system (Mouth & Nose)

Clinical Symptoms

  • Fever (Temperature ≤1030 F and persist 7 days or more)
  • Headache
  • Nausea, Vomiting
  • Diarrhea (Sometimes bloody)
  • Urinary Tract Infection (UTI), Nephritis
  • Splenomegaly
  • Abdominal pain or cramp
  • Constipation
  • Gastroenteritis
  • Cough
  • Bradycardia

Incubation Period: 8 – 14 days

Symptoms existence: 2 – 6 weeks with possibilities of recurrent contamination

Complications

Management of Typhoid Patients

  • Oral Saline for dehydration management
  • Consultation with medical doctor as soon as possible
  • Proper antibiotic (Directed by physician) after confirm diagnosis

Vaccines for Typhoid

  • There are three types of typhoid vaccines licensed for use:*
  • Typhoid conjugate vaccine (TCV)
  • The unconjugated Vi polysaccharide (ViPS) vaccine
  • The live attenuated Ty21a vaccine.

In 2018, WHO Recommended

  • The first prequalified TCV for intramuscular administration of a single dose (0.5 mL) in children ≥ 6 months of age and in adults up to 45 years of age.
  • The VIPs vaccine is recommended for intramuscular or subcutaneous administration in individuals 2 years of age and older.
  • Ty21a vaccine is available in enteric-coated capsules recommended for oral administration on alternate days in a three-dose regimen in persons above 6 years of age.

Repeat vaccination is recommended for VIPs every three years, and for Ty21a every three to seven years, depending on national policies. There are currently no licensed vaccines against paratyphoid fever and iNTS disease. Prevention of enteric fever is not impossible but necessary steps need to be taken.

Cause of Salmonella Contamination

  • Defective sewage system (Housing or farming)
  • The defective or unclean water supply system

Prevention from Salmonella Pollution

  • Drink safe water
  • Maintain hygiene and use safe water including cooking food
  • Develop sewage and water supply system, sanitary disposal of excreta
  • Preserve separately raw and cooked food
  • Use RO purifier to ensure safe drinking and kitchen water

MICRO Filtration: Pore size: 0.1 micron
ULTRA Filtration: Pore size: 0.01 micron
NANO Filtration: Pore size: 0.001 micron
Reverse Osmosis (RO) Filtration: Pore size: 0.0001 micron

Note: The pore size of the membrane of RO Purifier is too small than the size of Salmonella. For this reason only RO purifier with accurate size (0.0001 microns) of membrane capable to prevent Salmonella and ensure 100% safe drinking & kitchen water Solution.

To ensure pure drinking water and health safety ULTIMA CARE brought RO Purifier for you. The process of 6-10 steps water purifier prevents harmful germs and provides you with 100% safe water for drinking. Prevention of enteric fever will no longer serious issues if safe water treatment is insured.

Ultima RO Water Purifier
Ultima RO Water Purifier

Edited By:
Dr. Hefjur Rahman Ojaer
BUMS (DU), MPH (NIPSOM – BSMMU)

Source

  • https://www.dhakatribune.com/uncategorized/2013/06/21/treating-typhoid
  • https://www.who.int/immunization/monitoring_surveillance/burden/vpd/WHO_SurveillanceVaccinePreventable_21_Typhoid_R1.pdf?ua=1
  • https://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/handle/10665/272272/WER9313.pdf?ua=1
RO Purifier: The Best Way To Prevent Coliform

RO Purifier: The Best Way To Prevent Coliform

Coliform bacteria will not likely cause illness, but prevent coliform bacteria is very necesary. However, their presence in drinking water indicates that disease-causing organisms (pathogens) could be in the water system.

Coliform bacteria are defined as rod-shaped (2 microns long and 0.5 microns wide in diameter) Gram-negative non-spore-forming bacteria. Typically found in various foods, soil, and warm-blooded animal intestines. This bacteria can ferment lactose with the production of acid and gas when incubated at 35–37°C.

prevent coliform

All types of coliforms are not pathogenic. Out of Fecal Coliforms (Subgroup of Total Coliforms), some categories of Escherichia coli are pathogenic.

Escherichia coli contaminated water or food may affect human beings severely. Children are more vulnerable than older and sometimes cause death due to weak immune system against this infection.

Classification of Coliform:

  • Fecal Coliform is a subgroup of Total Coliforms.
  • Escherichia coli is a subsection of Fecal Coliform
  • Some special types of Escherichia coli are pathogenic
  • Total Coliform g Fecal Coliform g Escherichia Coli g Pathogenic E. coli

All Pathogenic E. Coli And Diseases Symptoms:

  • Enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC): Diarrhoea
  • Enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC): Septic Shock, meningitis
  • Enteroinvasive E. coli (EIEC): Profuse diarrhea, high fever.
  • Enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC): Gastroenteritis, enterocolitis, bloody diarrhea
  • Enteroaggregative E. coli (EAEC): Diarrhoea with severe dehydration
  • Uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC): Urinary Tract Infection (UTI)
  • Verotoxin-producing E. coli: Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome (HUS)

Note: Among all Pathogenic E. coli most harmful is E. coli (O157:H7) responsible for intestinal hemorrhage

Source of Infection

Contaminated food and drinks

  • Raw food: Vegetables, Fruits, Leaf, Root, and stems.
  • Cooked food: May contaminated by preservation with contaminated raw food
  • Drinks: Water, juice, and milk
  • Infected Person (Person to person: Touch of infected)

The Root of Transmission

  • Oral (Throat & Digestive System)
  • Facial (Eye, Skin, Ear)
  • Nasal (Throat & Respiratory System)

Symptoms of Infection

IPD-ICDDRB
IPD-ICDDRB
  • Nausea, Vomiting
  • Diarrhoea (Often Bloody or Profuse)
  • Fever (100-101°C)
  • Urinary Tract Infection (UTI)
  • Abdominal Cramp
  • Gastroenteritis, Enterocolitis
  • Acute respiratory tract infection (ARI), Pneumonia
  • Septic Shock
  • Meningitis

Vulnerable Peoples

  • Child
  • Kitchen worker (Housewife, chef & cook)
  • Cleaner
  • Swimmer, Fisherman or boatman

Note: Children are especially vulnerable for person to person contamination

Incubation Period

1- 4 Days

Symptoms Exists

Highest 10 Days (Continuous use of polluted water increases possibilities of recurrent contamination; children are a more vulnerable group for such kind of infection)

Patient Management

  • Oral Saline for Diarrhoea and Dehydration management
  • Paracetamol for Fever
  • Consultation with Medical Doctor as soon as possible
  • Proper antibiotic (Directed by the physician) for infection control

Presence Testing

  • By Using – Coliform Test Kit
  • In Laboratory – Gram Stain

Causes of Coliform Pollution

  • Defective sewage system (Housing or farming)
  • Defective manure fertilizer apply system
  • Defective or unclean water supply system
  • Heavy (excessive) rainfall against poor drainage system

Disinfection Processes

  • Thermal Effect (Boiling or Cooking more than 720 °C or 160 °C)
  • Halogenations (Using halogen tablets to kill coliform)
  • Ultraviolet Light (UV light units may be recommended for water supplies were total coliform bacteria > 1000 colonies per 100 ml or fecal coliform bacteria > 100 colonies per 100 ml)

Ozonation (This system is an effective disinfection system, but more costly)

Note: Disinfection systems are capable to kill coliform of water but unable to remove cadaver of microorganisms, TDS (Total Dissolved Solids) and insoluble substances. For this reason, in order to purify the water (Remove all unwanted substances), we have to use more effective filtration system (RO Water Purifier)

Prevent coliform bacteria

  • Prevention from coliform Pollution
  • Preserve separately raw and cooked food
  • Drinking safe water and prevent coliform bacteria
  • Use pure water for cooking and washing
  • Use RO purifier to ensure safety

Purification Systems Of Water

  • MICRO Filtration: Pore size: 0.1 micron
  • ULTRA Filtration: Pore size: 0.01 micron
  • NANO Filtration: Pore size: 0.001 micron
  • Reverse Osmosis (RO) Filtration: Pore size: 0.0001 micron

Note: Only RO purifier with accurate size (0.0001 micron) of membrane capable to ensure 100% safe drinking & kitchen water Solution

To ensure pure drinking water and health safety ULTIMA CARE brought RO Purifier for you. Drinking safe water is a key way to prevent coliform bacteria.

ultima ro water purifier

Edited By:
Dr. Hefjur Rahman Ojaer
BUMS (DU), MPH (NIPSOM – BSMMU)

Source

https:// https://www.webmd.com/a-to-z-guides/e-coli-infection-topic-overview

https://www.health.ny.gov/environmental/water/drinking/coliform_bacteria.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pathogenic_Escherichia_coli#UPEC