Prevention of Enteric Fever is a challenge for everybody. Social awareness is the key to preventing enteric fever.
Name of Diseases
Typhoid Fever and Paratyphoid fever
Typhoid and paratyphoid fever is a major cause of illness in most developing countries, including Bangladesh. It remains the most common bloodstream infection in many resource-poor settings. It requires the ingestion of at least 105Salmonella bacteria at a time to produce typhoid. Recently estimated 22 million new typhoid cases occur each year in the world, with some 0.2 million of these resulting in death. Paratyphoid fever is similar in its symptoms to typhoid fever, but typhoid fever has a higher fatality rate. Bangladesh is located in a region where typhoid is highly endemic. Prevention of enteric fever is a gradual process and only social awareness can mitigate the disease.
Size & Shape: Rod Shaped 0.7 – 1.5 µm by 2.0 – 5.0 µm
Source of contamination: Stool and urine of infected persons
Note: Salmonella absorbs oxygen as a parasite from human body to live and reproduction. Human may be infected due to take Salmonella contaminated water and food, sometimes may die also. Case-fatality rates of 10% can be reduced to less than 1% with appropriate antibiotic therapy. Children and Adolescents (up to 19 years) are more vulnerable to this infection.
The Root of transmission: Digestive system (Mouth & Nose)
Fever (Temperature ≤1030 F and persist 7 days or more)
Diarrhea (Sometimes bloody)
Urinary Tract Infection (UTI), Nephritis
Abdominal pain or cramp
Incubation Period: 8 – 14 days
Symptoms existence: 2 – 6 weeks with possibilities of recurrent contamination
Consultation with medical doctor as soon as possible
Proper antibiotic (Directed by physician) after confirm diagnosis
Vaccines for Typhoid
There are three types of typhoid vaccines licensed for use:*
Typhoid conjugate vaccine (TCV)
The unconjugated Vi polysaccharide (ViPS) vaccine
The live attenuated Ty21a vaccine.
In 2018, WHO Recommended
The first prequalified TCV for intramuscular administration of a single dose (0.5 mL) in children ≥ 6 months of age and in adults up to 45 years of age.
The VIPs vaccine is recommended for intramuscular or subcutaneous administration in individuals 2 years of age and older.
Ty21a vaccine is available in enteric-coated capsules recommended for oral administration on alternate days in a three-dose regimen in persons above 6 years of age.
Repeat vaccination is recommended for VIPs every three years, and for Ty21a every three to seven years, depending on national policies. There are currently no licensed vaccines against paratyphoid fever and iNTS disease. Prevention of enteric fever is not impossible but necessary steps need to be taken.
Cause of Salmonella Contamination
Defective sewage system (Housing or farming)
The defective or unclean water supply system
Prevention from Salmonella Pollution
Drink safe water
Maintain hygiene and use safe water including cooking food
Develop sewage and water supply system, sanitary disposal of excreta
Preserve separately raw and cooked food
Use RO purifier to ensure safe drinking and kitchen water
Note: The pore size of the membrane of RO Purifier is too small than the size of Salmonella. For this reason only RO purifier with accurate size (0.0001 microns) of membrane capable to prevent Salmonella and ensure 100% safe drinking & kitchen water Solution.
To ensure pure drinking water and health safety ULTIMA CARE brought RO Purifier for you. The process of 6-10 steps water purifier prevents harmful germs and provides you with 100% safe water for drinking. Prevention of enteric fever will no longer serious issues if safe water treatment is insured.
Coliform bacteria will not likely cause illness, but prevent coliform bacteria is very necesary. However, their presence in drinking water indicates that disease-causing organisms (pathogens) could be in the water system.
Coliform bacteria are defined as rod-shaped (2 microns long and 0.5 microns wide in diameter) Gram-negative non-spore-forming bacteria. Typically found in various foods, soil, and warm-blooded animal intestines. This bacteria can fermentlactose with the production of acid and gas when incubated at 35–37°C.
All types of coliforms are not pathogenic. Out of Fecal Coliforms (Subgroup of Total Coliforms), some categories of Escherichia coli are pathogenic.
Escherichia coli contaminated water or food may affect human beings severely. Children are more vulnerable than older and sometimes cause death due to weak immune system against this infection.
Classification of Coliform:
Fecal Coliform is a subgroup of Total Coliforms.
Escherichia coli is a subsection of Fecal Coliform
Some special types of Escherichia coli are pathogenic
Total Coliform g Fecal Coliform g Escherichia Coli g Pathogenic E. coli
All Pathogenic E. Coli And Diseases Symptoms:
Enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC): Diarrhoea
Enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC): Septic Shock, meningitis
Enteroinvasive E. coli (EIEC): Profuse diarrhea, high fever.
Enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC): Gastroenteritis, enterocolitis, bloody diarrhea
Enteroaggregative E. coli (EAEC): Diarrhoea with severe dehydration
Uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC): Urinary Tract Infection (UTI)
Verotoxin-producing E. coli: Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome (HUS)
Note: Among all Pathogenic E. coli most harmful is E. coli (O157:H7) responsible for intestinal hemorrhage
Source of Infection
Contaminated food and drinks
Raw food: Vegetables, Fruits, Leaf, Root, and stems.
Cooked food: May contaminated by preservation with contaminated raw food
Drinks: Water, juice, and milk
Infected Person (Person to person: Touch of infected)
Note: Children are especially vulnerable for person to person contamination
1- 4 Days
Highest 10 Days (Continuous use of polluted water increases possibilities of recurrent contamination; children are a more vulnerable group for such kind of infection)
Oral Saline for Diarrhoea and Dehydration management
Paracetamol for Fever
Consultation with Medical Doctor as soon as possible
Proper antibiotic (Directed by the physician) for infection control
By Using – Coliform Test Kit
In Laboratory – Gram Stain
Causes of Coliform Pollution
Defective sewage system (Housing or farming)
Defective manure fertilizer apply system
Defective or unclean water supply system
Heavy (excessive) rainfall against poor drainage system
Thermal Effect (Boiling or Cooking more than 720 °C or 160 °C)
Halogenations (Using halogen tablets to kill coliform)
Ultraviolet Light (UV light units may be recommended for water supplies were total coliform bacteria > 1000 colonies per 100 ml or fecal coliform bacteria > 100 colonies per 100 ml)
Ozonation (This system is an effective disinfection system, but more costly)
Note: Disinfection systems are capable to kill coliform of water but unable to remove cadaver of microorganisms, TDS (Total Dissolved Solids) and insoluble substances. For this reason, in order to purify the water (Remove all unwanted substances), we have to use more effective filtration system (RO Water Purifier)