Sewage water monitoring can contribute to the detection of sars-cov-2 circulation

Sewage water monitoring can contribute to the detection of sars-cov-2 circulation

Coronaviruses are enveloped, single-stranded RNA viruses, grouped into four main groups: alpha, beta, gamma, and delta. Coronaviruses (CoVs) belong to the Coronaviridae family.

Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is responsible for the coronavirus disease COVID-19, a public health emergency worldwide, and Italy is among the most severely affected countries. Sewage water monitoring is one of the key reasons for preventing covid 19.

Sewage water monitoring overview

The first SARS-CoV-2 cases reported in Italy were two Chinese tourists who fell ill in January after flying in from Wuhan, where the pandemic began. These patients were immediately put into isolation, and are not believed to have infected anyone else. The first autochthonous patient was diagnosed one month later in Lombardy, on February 2021. He was a 38-year-old man, from the town of Codogno, 60 km southeast of Milan.

Scientific research was conducted to identify the possibility that SARS-CoV-2 emerged in Italy earlier than February 2021 by waste water-based epidemiology[1]. Forty sewage samples were analyzed for the study. Samples were collected between 9th October 2019 and 28th February 2020 from five WWTPs (wastewater treatment plants) located in 3 cities of Italy; Milan (20 samples from two distinct plants), Turin (16 samples from two distinct plants), and Bologna (4 samples from one plant). Sewage water monitoring has an impact on spreading covid 19.

Molecular analysis was undertaken with both nested RT-PCR and real-time RT-PCR assays. For nested RT-PCR, SuperScript IV Reverse Transcriptase (Thermo Fisher Scientific) was used to synthesis first-strand cDNA. A newly developed real-time RT- PCR designed with the Primer3 software was used targeting the ORF1ab region of the SARS-CoV-2 genome.

Statistics & Concentration

SARS-CoV-2 RNA was detected by nested RT-PCR in 18/40 (45%) samples (amplicon sequences confirmed as SARS-CoV-2 by blast analysis) and in 26/40 (65%) samples by the newly developed real-time RT-PCR (shown in Table 1), with an overall agreement between the two assays of 65.0% (26/40 paired results). Virus concentration in the samples ranged from below the limit of detection (LOD) to 5.6 × 104 genome copies (g.c.) / liter.

Table 1: SARS-CoV-2 detection in sewage samples, October 2019 – February 2020

Sample IDOriginDate of SamplingNested RT-PCRReal-time RT- PCR (g.c.)/liter
3285Milan24/10/2019Below LOD
3287Milan25/11/2019Below LOD
3289Milan18/12/2019+4.1 × 103
3290Milan18/12/20198.7 × 102
3238Milan20/12/2019+1.2 × 103
3291Milan29/01/2020+2.3 × 103
3292Milan29/01/20202.2 × 103
3244Milan03/02/20202.2 × 103
3231Milan12/02/20201.6 × 103
3239Milan12/02/20202.8 × 103
3232Milan19/02/2020+Below LOD
3240Milan19/02/20202.6 × 103
3241Milan23/02/2020+1.5 × 103
3233Milan24/02/2020+9.2 × 102
3230Milan25/02/2020+4.8 × 102
3237Milan25/02/20202.6 × 103
3234Milan26/02/2020+3.7 × 103
3242Milan25/02/20201.7 × 103
3235Milan28/02/2020Below LOD
3243Milan28/02/2020+1.3 × 103
3144Turin09/10/2019Below LOD
3145Turin09/10/2019Below LOD
3321Turin06/11/2019Below LOD
3323Turin06/11/2019Below LOD
3325Turin20/11/2019Below LOD
3329Turin04/12/2019Below LOD
3331Turin04/12/2019Below LOD
3333Turin18/12/2019+Below LOD
3335Turin18/12/2019+1.2 × 103
3337Turin14/01/2020+7.4 × 102
3339Turin15/01/2020+1.2 × 103
3341Turin28/01/2020+5.6 × 102
3343Turin29/01/20206.0 × 102
3345Turin11/02/20204.7 × 102
3347Turin25/02/2020+2.9 × 102
3349Turin26/02/2020+5.6 × 104
3374Bologna21/11/2019Below LOD
3375Bologna10/12/20192.9 × 104
3376Bologna29/01/2020+3.3 × 104
3377Bologna19/02/2020+Below LOD

Highlighted in bold are the first occurrences of SARS-CoV-2 in each of the areas included in the study.

The study demonstrates that SARS-CoV-2 was already circulating in northern Italy at the end of 2019. This study also highlights the potential of environmental surveillance as an early warning system capable of alerting public health authorities to the presence of an outbreak in a specific population. Sewage water monitoring needs to be implemented by the local authorities for ensuring safe water and prevent covid 19.

Final Words

From this study, we can say that the presence of coronaviruses or any other viruses or bacteria in our sewage or groundwater can lead to serious health problems including diarrhea, pneumonia, coronavirus disease, reproductive problems, and nervous system disease, or even death. So, we just need to drink safe water. We should also be aware of other users of water in our everyday life such as cooking, bathing, washing, etc.  

A scientific study has shown that to prepare boiled rice using the absorption method about 0.35 liter of water is required for 170 gm/person/day of rice which is recommended for adults by the USDA Food and Nutrition Service. To prevent various diseases and to lead a healthy lifestyle, we must need to use safe and clean water for our cooking as well. For this reason, we should consider a RO water purification system at home and office. Sewage water monitoring is a key challenge for the government but it is not impossible to implement.

[1]  Sewage samples may use to monitor the levels of virus circulating in the population, an approach called Waster-Based Epidemiology.

Plastic Pollution is a Serious Threat to Environment and Human Health

Plastic Pollution is a Serious Threat to Environment and Human Health

Plastics have changed our lives; it is the most common material which is used at home. Plastic pollution is a serious threat for the human being, wildlife as well environment. It has altered medication, decorated vehicles to jet planes as a consequence environments get polluted. 

We cannot deny that there are some benefits of plastics because of its lightweight, cost-effective and resistance. But on the other hand, plastics negatively impact waters, wildlife and humans. The consequences of using plastics are widespread- and it has a long term impact on humans, wildlife and nature. 

It is assumed that, by 2050, there will be more plastic than fish in the oceans.

Types of Plastics 

Type 1- Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET or PETE or Polyester) or stomach plastic 

Stomach plastic is normally used to prepare water bottles, juice, soft drinks, butter, salad dressing, vegetable oil, mouthwash, cosmetics etc. These plastics are much thinner and smooth. Stomach plastics do not have any harmful bacteria or thalates, but its use is used in antimony trioxide. The research said that the use of long-time heat is toxic antimony from the stomach bottle. So it is very important to keep these bottles away from high temperatures. Type 1 or stomach plastic is made for one-time use only. 

Type 2- High-Density Polyethylene (HDPE)

The most used plastic in the world is polyethylene. High-thickness polyethylene produced using petroleum, a sort of resistant plastic. High-density polyethylene is used in opaque milk, grocery bag, shampoo bottles, juice container, medicine bottle etc. High-density polyethylene is moderately strong, peevish, irritable and ‘heat-prone’ in nature. It doesn’t contain destructive BPA or thalates. There is no realized wellbeing hazard for this kind of plastic use. In fact, some research has shown, if the sunlight is kept for a long time, then the nanalifenal is released from type 2 plastic to ultraviolet rays. Comparatively, type 1, type 2 plastics is considered safer for food and drink. 

Type 3- Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC)

Toys, blister wrap, cling wrap, detergent bottles, loose-leaf binders, blood bags and medical tubing containers are prepared by Type 3 plastic called PVC- Polyvinyl Chloride. PVC or vinyl is the second most widely used plastic equipment in the world after polyethylene. In fact, the manufacture and disposal process of Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) has been announced as the cause of serious environmental pollution issues and health risks as well.  

Type 4 – Low-Density Polyethylene (LDPE) 

Low-Density Polyethylene (LDPE) plastics are comparatively transparent and opaque; also it is flexible and rigid but fragile. These types of plastics are the easiest polymer chemical structure. 

Various kinds of bags like grocery, dry cleaning, newspapers, bread, frozen food bags, garbage etc, hot & cold beverage cups, coatings for paper milk cartons and plastic wraps etc are prepared from Type 4 Plastics. It is also used for wire and cable covering. Unfortunately, Low-Density Polyethylene (LDPE) is quite difficult to be recycled. 

Type 5 – Polypropylene (PP)

Polypropylene is normally strong and semi-transparent, high in heat and hydrophobic. These kinds of plastics are used for packing medicine, beverage, yoghurt, ketchup etc. Polypropylene isn’t completely recyclable also Polypropylene could cause asthma and hormone disruption in the human body. 

Type 6 – Polystyrene (PS)

Polystyrene is widely used in making egg cartons,  food containers, disposable cups and bowls, packaging, and also bike helmets. It is very risky for human health. Studies have shown that styrene is regarded as the brain and nervous system toxicant; it might also affect genes, liver, lungs, and immune system. Polystyrene has a very little rate of recycling. 

Type 7 – Other

Type 7 is those plastics which Except for the type mentioned by number 1-6 and also that may be layered or mixed with other categories of plastics, such as bioplastics. Polycarbonate containers are made of BPA or bisphenol A. Due to its toxicity; several countries have banned the use of polycarbonate.

By considering the above categories of plastics we can say that Polyethylene Terephthalate is the best type of plastic for using food and water items. Ultima water purifier uses Polyethylene Terephthalate plastics to their purifier. That is why much safer and less harmful drinking water can be ensured.

Safety precautions when using plastic containers

We all know that Plastic pollution is a serious threat to our lives but if we are aware of these impacts can be reduced.

  • Don’t use the microwave for drinks or foods in plastic containers or with plastic wrap the food regardless of the types and classifications of plastic are. The heat of the microwaves breaks down the plastics then it releases a chemical into the food or drinks of the containers.
  • Packaging of plastics that have been used for the packing of takeaway food containers, detergents, water and soft drinks bottles etc should not reuse as they are one-time use only.   
  • Cell phones, glasses, remotes and other plastic objects keep away from children as these electronics are prepared of toxic chemicals also it may be treated as fire retardants. 
  • Hot liquids and cold liquids are not suitable to use in plastics containers. The toxic chemical can melt into these liquids.
  • Before using any plastic containers read carefully the instructions of packaging labels. Single-use plastic using more than one time increases the risk of growing bacteria into the water or food.

Plastic pollution is a serious threat to human health 

Look around and observe what amount of plastic can you see? Food, bottles, pens even your phone covers contain plastics, the list is unlimited. Although plastic pollution is a serious threat, plastic contamination on human health remains unknown to the majority of the people. Have you ever imagined that the negative effects of plastic pollution on our health are increasing day by day? 

Toxic chemicals filter out of plastic and are found in the blood and tissue of almost all of us.

Microplastics are found in 114 marine species by researchers. Most of them in fact, one-third of these fish are eaten by humans. Every day, we are consuming more polluted seafood, this plastic pollution affects human health, even if these effects have not been discovered just yet.

Because of the poor waste management system, people frequently have no option but to burn their trash in the open space. This practice allows chemicals from plastic to easily enter the human body as we breathe normally. 

There is no surprise that plastic pollution is a serious threat to human health, along with environmental impacts. 

Several studies have found some causal links between plastic and problems of the human body’s systems. As a result, respiratory, cardiovascular, gastrointestinal and reproductive systems of the human body are affected. So, the health impacts are overwhelmingly huge. Diabetes, chronic, cancer and various immune diseases are just a few examples of many issues potentially caused by plastic and its harmful components.

Pregnant women and children are in a more vulnerable situation. For a pregnant mother, it is considered that such impacts on a developing fetus have been shown to increase the birth defects of the brain, heart, and/or spine.

Impact on Wildlife

Millions of wildlife die for plastics every year, from birds to fish to other ocean organisms. Nearly 700 species, including rare ones, are known to have been affected by plastics. Most of the seabird eats plastics.

It is difficult to retrieve plastic waste once it is thrown in the ocean. But once plastics have been broken down into microplastics and mixed throughout the deep water in the vast ocean, they are almost impossible to recover. Plastic pollution is a serious threat to wildlife. A human can understand but animals don’t. According to research, there are 51 trillion pieces of plastic that are stored in the ocean. These plastics are deadly hazards that animals need to avoid. 

Plastic is very dangerous for wildlife because they eat it or mistakenly feed to their children. Sometimes they get stuck into the plastic or plastic fibre and don’t find any chance to overcome it. Even plankton, the smallest creatures in our oceans, are getting microplastics and absorbing their harmful chemicals. Unlike humans, animals cannot identify plastic from “digestible” materials. Looks, smells, tastes or behaves like food that drives animals to eat plastics. The more use of plastics is taken place the wildlife will be affected increasingly. 

Many of the ocean creatures are entrapping, encircling or constricting by plastic debris. Entanglement cases have been found for at least 344 species of marine animal including all marine turtle species, over two-thirds of seal species, one-third of whale species, and one-quarter of seabirds. 89 species of fish and 92 species of invertebrates have also been recorded for Entanglement.  Plastic rope and netting and abandoned fishing gear is the most common entanglement. Plastic pollution is a serious threat, but there is no way to except reducing plastic pollution.

Impact on the Environment 

Plastic pollution is a serious threat Bangladesh

A one time used plastic can be used for only 15 minutes but it can take 450 years or more to vanish from land or water. Billions of plastics are thrown away to the environment and only 8 per cent gets recycled. The rest of these ends up in landfills, burned or becomes wastes of nature. Everything suffers tourism, recreation, business, the health of humans, animals, fish and birds—because of plastic pollution. The financial damage continuously being inflicted is inestimable. Obviously, plastic pollution is a serious threat to environments.

According to a report, in 2019, production and burning of plastic have generated 850 million tonnes of carbon dioxide. It is predicted that in the current trend, annual emissions from plastics will grow to 1.34 billion tones by 2030. In human word related and private condition, plastic items are available in enormous volume. Contamination by plastics and plastic items can harm and pollute the earthbound condition and can be accordingly moved to the sea-going condition.

Duties to overcome plastic pollution 

Plastic pollution is a serious threat so there is no alternative to reducing plastic pollution. Plastics are dominating in our everyday life. We don’t have enough options to avoid plastics from our daily life. But there are some suggestions which can be reduced plastic pollution. 5R is an effective way to mitigate plastic pollution; these are Reduce, Reuse, Refuse, Remove, Recycle and Rally.


We should reduce the amount of plastic waste. Most of the time it is true that one time plastics have an alternative solution. Still, wood, pottery can be an ideal alternative of plastics equipment.


To avoid using single-use plastic equipment it can be a good alternative of using reusable plastics materials. Those plastics have long validity that can reuse frequently to avoid plastic pollution. Bring a reusable container to a restaurant or other essential area with you when you expect to have plastics.


Sometimes you have to refuse plastics in restaurants as well as family. Request them to provide alternatives for plastics.


Removing trash from your surroundings and environments can protect the wildlife and environments from plastic pollutions.


There are some plastics which need can easily be recycled. We should recycle those plastics which we do not need to use any longer.  

Single-use water bottles vs water purifier 

A large number of people use single-use water bottles and invisible satisfaction grow in their mind for having safe water. In fact, the water might safe enough but bottles might not safe. Therefore, before purchasing water both bottles and water safety need to be ensured. Furthermore, the single-use bottles have some huge environmental effects which we have discussed earlier.

One 2018 study, There were 11 global brands of bottled water had tested from 9 of the different countries. The research showed that 93% of the bottled water contains microplastics. The research didn’t say that all the plastic water is contaminated but a large number of companies can not ensure safe water quality. Everybody has come to terms that plastic pollution is a serious threat to the world, but very few people make themselves conscious.

On the other hand quality water purifier which ensures reserve osmosis (RO) system is better than the bottled water. The reason behind it reserve osmosis (RO) system uses food grade plastic of PET or PETE or Polyester. It also ensures airproof water tank so that germ can not grow from water. Ultima water purifier with reserve osmosis (RO) system ensures the best quality for water purification.

Ultima Water Purifier uses 6-8 steps to purify water. Ultra Filtration, Reserve Osmosis, Ultra Violet ensures 100% safe water. The important thing is these kinds of water purification process do not cause plastic pollution. That is why 100% safe water and pollution-free environment can be ensured.


Nowadays plastics become a common material to use our everyday equipment. We don’t have enough options to avoid plastics from our daily life. But we can reduce the uses of plastics. It is clear that most of the plastics we use are for one time. These plastics gradually grow a huge amount of wastage. As a result, the environment, wildlife and humans are affected.  Plastic pollution is a serious threat, therefore the Governments across the world need to take some effective steps.

We can recycle plastics for reuse. Otherwise, the use of plastics will pollute the environment. Common questions arise in our mind: how can we avoid plastics in food items? The answer is there is no chance to avoid plastics instantly, but we can use food-grade plastic which is not much harmer for our health.

World Cancer Day 2020: Let’s Drink Safe Water And Prevent Cancer

World Cancer Day 2020: Let’s Drink Safe Water And Prevent Cancer

Cancer scenario

Drink Safe Water

Drink safe water is a common consciousness to prevent cancer. Ensuring safe drinking water to all can be an affective ways to decrease the number of cancer patient.

Cancer is the 2nd leading cause of death all over the world, and responsible for about 9.6 million (96 lakh) deaths (17 patients per minute).

In Bangladesh:

  • Nearly 1.08 lakh patient had died of cancer.
  • A number of diagnosed new cases of cancer was 150781 (male 83715 and female 67,066) throughout the year.
  • Patient of breast cancer was 12764 (8.5%of all cancer patients).
  • Lung cancers were responsible for the deaths of 12,075 patients.
    (Scenario reported by World Health Organization (WHO) in 2018)

Cancer treatment

  • After a diagnosis of cancer, generally, patients may have to face surgical procedure to remove cancer tissue. Sometimes a surgical procedure is not applicable for overall circumstances.
  • Then chemotherapy is given for the patient in order to stop or slow the growth of cancer cells. It is applied to prolong life or to reduce symptoms.
  • Along this radiotherapy may also apply to kill cancer cells and shrink tumours.

But, still now cancer is considered as an incurable diseases worldwide. “Drink safe water” should be a campaign for aware the people about cancer.

  • No specific curative medicine has invented for cancer treatment until now.
  • Preventive medicine (vaccine) is intangible
  • Palliative treatment (reduce sufferings) is unaffordable for mass people
  • Only a few specific preventive measures are tangible for all.

Note: Cancer Awareness Foundation Bangladesh reported that 37 cancer treatment centres giving chemotherapy, radiotherapy and palliative treatment in the country.

How does cancer develop in our body?

  • Cancer is a morphological malformation of tissue, abnormal growth of cells which tend to proliferate in an uncontrolled way.
  • Affected cells may form a mass of tissue, called a tumour.
  • Malignant lymphoma is a clinical feature as a primary symptom of cancer.
  • In some cases occurred metastasis (spreading cancer cells).

Note: Cancer can not be developed in a day. Long term exposure to toxic substances more than tolerance limit may cause of molecular change of tissue, which can turn to cancer. Beside this long term existence of infected wound or boil may turn to cancer.

Contamination Of Drinking-Water By Arsenic In Bangladesh

Example: primary clinical feature of arsenicosis is skin pigmentation, then it turn to keratosis or melanosis. Finally aggravated arsenicosis develops skin cancer.

Causes of Cancer:

All causes of cancer are not précised and cannot be explained in short. But the most common causes are:

  • Certain period exposure to the toxic molecular substance.
  • Infections – such as hepatitis and human papillomavirus (HPV), Tuberculosis etc.
  • Infected wound (boil, ulcer) may gradually turn to cancer.
  • Tobacco smoking; it has been strongly linked to various types of cancer -including cancer of the lung, mouth, throat, larynx, pancreas, bladder, cervix and kidney.
  • Tobacco use is the most important risk factor and is responsible for 22% of cancer.
  • Chewing tobacco is linked to cancer of the oral cavity and pancreas.
  • Passive smoking (accompany by smokers); it increases the risk of lung cancer.
  • Drink unsafe water is a vital reason for affecting cancer. Some heavy elements of water like Cadmium, Lead, Arsenik are strongly linked to causing cancer.

It is true that, drink safe water can reduce the chances of cancer.

Who are most likely to be affected by cancer?

  • Patients with the infected wound (chronic ulcer)
  • Patients with tumour
  • Tobacco Smoker
  • Alcohol user
  • Diabetic patients

Economic Impact of Cancer:

The total annual economic cost of cancer was estimated at approximately US$ 1.16 trillion in 2010. The economic impact of cancer is significant and is increasing day by day.

What are the carcinogens?

Cancer-causing substances are known as a carcinogen. Many types of carcinogens exist in the environment. Most of the carcinogens lead exposure to renal failure as well as kidney damage. Common types of cancer with responsible substances are given in the chart.

Diseases Substances or Microorganisms
Lung cancer, Mesothelioma Arsenic, Asbestos, Beryllium, Cadmium, Chromium, Carbon (Coal and Soot), Erionite, Radon, Silica, Thorium
Skin cancerArsenic, HPV Virus
Leukemia, Blood cancerBenzene
Kidney cancerCarbon tetrachloride, Chloroform, Nickel, Silica
Breast cancerEthylene Oxide, Vinyl Chloride
Liver CancerAlcohol, Carbon tetrachloride, Hepatitis virus
Cervix CancerTrichloroethylene

Many Volatile organic chemicals (VOCs) may also exist in water and act as a carcinogen.

World Cancer Day:

4th February 2020, the WORLD CANCER DAY has been celebrated to raise awareness of cancer and to encourage its prevention, detection, and treatment by the Union for International Cancer Control (UICC) to support the goals of the World Cancer Declaration.

The Theme of WORLD CANCER DAY:       

‘I AM AND I WILL.’ (2019-2021).

The theme is all about you and your commitment to act. We believe that through our positive actions, together we can reach the target of reducing the number of premature deaths from cancer and non-communicable diseases by one third by 2030.

Prevent Cancer: Drink Safe Water

As air, water and soil are mixed everywhere in nature. Most of the elements of soil and air can be found in water as dissolved matters, insoluble substances, and microorganisms. If potable water contains the carcinogen, it creates serious fatal health hazards, even death also. Besides this, food can be contaminated by contaminated water. So we have to face intolerable circumstances with contaminated water. For this reason, water purifying is undoubtedly crying need to prevent cancer. Mandatory action as a preventive measure against cancer. We can eat safe food, drink safe water and prevent cancer risk. Drink safe water is not always too much costly if water sources are available.

Things to avoid as protective measurement

  1. Tobacco (smoking and consuming)
  2. Much sugar
  3. Alcohol
  4. UV radiation in mid-day sunlight
  5. Nitrate rich food
  6. Barbecuing food (Polyaromatic hydrocarbon generated)

Finally you have to drink safe water and avoid contaminated water.

How to Drink Safe Water?

Ultra Violet radiation and boiling systems are unable to remove substances from water. Chemicalization (Halogenation) for water purifying causing chemical substance accumulation in water and increases risk of cancer.

Filtration is the most preferable water purification system. It is chemical-free technology lead to separation of solutes from water through a semi-permeable membrane with tiny pores. The membrane is obstructed to pass through the larger substances and microorganisms from water. Membrane consisted of smaller pore size is more effective.

Available membrane filtration systems with pore size of membrane:

  1. Ceramic filtration (CF): 0.3  – 0.8 micron
  2. MICRO Filtration (MF): 0.1 micron         
  3. ULTRA Filtration (UF): 0.01 micron       
  4. Hyper Filtration (HF) – Reverse Osmosis (RO): 0.0001 micron

Pore size of membrane of CF, MF and UF are larger than maximum carcinogens. So, these filters are unable to remove all substances from water. Only Reverse Osmosis (RO) membrane consisted with smaller pore size than substances of water.

RO Water Purifier

For this reason Reverse Osmosis (RO) technology is the best choice to purify the water due to the tiniest pore size (0.0001 micron) of the membrane.

You can keep confidence in RO technology for 100% safe “Drinking Water and Kitchen Water” Solution. This technology is recognized by NSF, ANSI and EPA of USA; certified by ISO 9001: 2008 and appreciated by WHO (World Health Organization). RO Water Purifier is an automatic machine directly usable for the domestic water line. No need to boil water. You can collect an RO water purifier for family health safety. It is significantly important to justify the quality before buying a RO water purifier. Ultima Bangladesh helps you to have drink safe water.

Key Points to Determine The Best RO Water Purifier:

RO Plus UV
  • Pore size of PP: 0.45 micron (Finest) , 1 micron, 5 micron

  • Power of RO membrane and Booster Pump

Domestic: 75 GPD, 100 GPD, Official: 200 GPD

  • Type of activated carbon (GAC, CTO, T 33)

Coconut shell (Better Quality), coal carbon

  • Type of faucet

Stainless steel (Alloy), Plastic Faucet

  • Food grade maintenance of air pressure tank.
  • Availability of filter and accessories in the market.
  • Better and friendly customer care services.

Honesty (truthfulness) is the noble and public health safety is the humanitarian Goal of ULTIMA (The best family friend). We should make a slogan that Drink safe water & prevent cancer.

Edited By:
Dr. Hefjur Rahman Ojaer

Why Do We Need RO Water Purifier at Home And Office

Why Do We Need RO Water Purifier at Home And Office

RO water purifier is the most advanced technology for purifying drinking water. To ensure 100% safe and mineralized drinking water as well as free from virus, bacteria, algal and harmful heavy elements, then Reverse Osmosis – RO water purifier is a must. Let’s discuss the whole scenario-

Is natural water safe?

Water from natural sources is a solution to various matters. Water and soil are mixed everywhere in nature. Most of the elements of soil can be found in water as dissolved matters, insoluble substances, and microorganisms. The majority of these are hazardous to human health.

Natural Water

Common Water Borne Diseases and Responsible Microorganisms:

Diarrhoea, Dysentery (Often Bloody or Profuse), Stomach crampRotavirus, Escherichia Coli, Shigella, Salmonella, Campylobacter, Entamoeba histolytica,
Abdominal Pain, Gastroenteritis, UlcerHelicobacter pylori, Campylobacter, Cryptosporidium
Urinary Tract Infection (UTI), acute respiratory tract infection (ARI)Escherichia Coli
Tonsillitis, Otitis media, Sinusitis, Pneumonia MeningitisStreptococcus, Pneumococcus
Conjunctivitis, Boil, Cellulitis, SepticemiaStaphylococcus
CholeraVibrio cholerae
Dermatitis (skin infection), Corneal UlcerationPseudomonas
TuberculosisMycobacterium tuberculosis
Central nervous system Infections, Pulmonary InfectionNocardia asteroides
AnthraxBacillus anthracis

Common Chronic Diseases and Responsible Contaminant (Substance)

Nerve Diseases (Alzheimer, Encephalopathy, Dementia, Stroke, Memory loss, etc.)Aluminum, Manganese, Mercury, Lead 
Kidney Diseases (Cyst & Renal stone)Copper, Nickel, Arsenic, Cadmium, Phosphate, Potassium, Calcium,
Lung Diseases (Tumor, asthma or hypoxemia)Nitrate, Lead, Cadmium, Silicon
Cardiovascular Diseases (Blue baby Syndrome)Sodium, Nitrate,
Liver Diseases (Fatty Liver, Gall Bladder stone)Lead, Cadmium, Carbon-di-Oxide, Cobalt, Mercury
Hair Follicle disease (Hair Loss)Chlorine, Fluorine
Deformity Disorder (Growth Retardation)Lead, Cadmium
Cancer (Carcinoma, Sarcoma, Malignancy)Lead, Cadmium, Chromium, Arsenic

The human body is consist of 68 – 72% of water and medical science also found that the direct or indirect cause of maximum diseases of human is contaminated water. Contaminated water by mentioned substances or microorganisms is not acceptable anyway. So, it is important to ensure safe water to be healthy.

Wrong Thinking About Natural Water

  • Most people consider the water from tube-well or waterfall as safe potable water. But, these sources may be contaminated by various hazardous substances and microorganisms.
  • People also think that boiling the water at 1000 C temperature is safe. But, by boiling the water dissolved or insoluble substances can’t be removed; and some microorganisms may not be killed in this way.
  • Chemicalization (Halogenation or ozonation) is another commonly known system of water purification. But, chemicals contamination is also hazardous to the human body. Besides this, measuring the optimum amount of chemical to kill existing microorganisms in water, is too difficult. Disproportion to the required amount resulting in the existence of live micro-organisms or creates acute toxicity to human health.

All of these procedures aren’t appropriate ways of water purification due to the possible existence of contaminants (substances) and microorganisms in water.

So, filtration is the only way to make the water safe (contamination and micro-organisms free). After filtration safe water must be preserved in such a reservoir that is free from air contact and also must be food grade maintained. Scientifically procedure air pressure tank is used to protect from any type of contaminations after making safe water.

Water Quality Testing

electrolyzer water test

Water quality parameters are Total Dissolved Solids (TDS), Electric Conductivity (EC), pH, Total Coliform, hardness, undissolved heavy solids (Fe, As, Cr, Cd, Pb, etc.) and Turbidity, etc.

TDS Level of water can be measured byTDS meter as mg/L or ppm (particles per million) unit and pH can be determined by pH meter or pH value table. In order to justify if the water safe or not, all other parameters of water can be tested in the chemical laboratory. But laboratory testing is expensive.



The pH of water is an important parameter to justify usability. It is a measurement of the acid-base equilibrium (0 to 6.9 acidic and 7.1 to 14 alkali). Mathematically calculated by negative common logarithm {pH = − log (H+)} of the hydrogen ion activity in a solution. In dilute solutions, the hydrogen ion activity is approximately equal to the hydrogen ion concentration. By drinking the water of Low pH causing acidity and high pH causing tingling symptoms and burning sensation or toxicity. The pH of safe potable water should be within the range of 6.5-8.5.

TDS (Total Dissolved Solids)


TDS of water means Total dissolved solids (as ions) in water. TDS meter is capable to indicate the dissolved ion density of water but unable to detect insoluble substances and microorganisms. If we can deduct TDS – minimum 97% then we can guess all other solutes already been deducted and that is safe water.

In spite of some limitations, usually, TDS and pH are commonly used parameters to justify the Water quality. Generally dissolved ions are tinier than any other insoluble substances or microorganisms. It can be assumed that TDS reduction (removing TDS) by membrane filtration refers to the rejection of larger particles as well as heavy metals and microorganisms also. So, if the TDS level of water is reduced 97% by any filtration system then it is considered that, maximum insoluble substances and microorganisms are also removed from the water.

So, as a preventive measure against infection or toxicity, medical science recommended applying the best filtration water purification technologies i.e. RO Water Purification in the daily life of human beings.

Currently, there are different types of water purifiers available. All water purifier in Bangladesh have different technical specifications with certain basic requirements, but people need the best water purifier for safe water

Applicability of specific water purifiers depends on water quality, water source, water pressure, amount of daily water requirement and available space. The general person as a customer may be confused to select an appropriate water purifier. In order to relieve the confusion of every valuable customer, ULTIMA has developed a detail featured article about the “Selection Criteria” of the Best water purifier in the market of Bangladesh.

We have to read carefully the following article at least a single time prior to buying a water purifier for our home, business center or office. ULTIMA’s cordial effort may be helpful for buying the best water purifier. We hope that after reading this article buyer will get a strong concept on selecting the best water purifier for domestic or official use.

Now, ULTIMA recommended knowing deeply, about the best water purifier for domestic or official use. Let first we have to know, about water purification technologies.

Water Filtration Technologies

  • Disinfection technologies (Boiling, Chemicalization and electromagnetic radiation)
  • Filtration technologies (by Porous Membrane)
    • Non-Electrical 
    • Electrical

Common Disinfection Technologies

  1. Boiling
  2. Chemicalization
  3. UV Radiation


Overcome thermotolerance of microorganisms at 1000 C or 2120F through boiling water using thermal effect by the Fuel energy

Limitations of Boiling
  • Inability to kill some microorganisms (Such as Clostridium)
  • Inability to remove dissolved ions, insoluble substances, and cadaver of microorganisms
  • Possibilities of fire explosion accidents
  • High fuel energy consumption
  • The high amount of system loss due to pure water vaporization


Halogenations or Ozonation, sometimes used in municipal or community water treatment plants.

Limitations of Chemicalization
  • Harmful chemical contamination (Longtime halogen contamination in drinking water is one of the causes of cancer)
  • Inability to remove cadaver, dissolved ions, and insoluble substances

UV Radiation

Electromagnetic Radiation by Ultra Violet (UV) ray

Limitations of UV Radiation
  • Not useful for turbid water (only applicable for transparent water)
  • Inability to remove cadaver, dissolved ions, and insoluble substances

Due to the limitations of the mentioned disinfection procedures, these are not recommended for purifying the water. But, the tube of the ultra-violate ray may be used as an adjacent device with RO membrane to ensure double-layer protection against microorganisms infection and polishing safe water.

Water Filtration Technologies

Filtration is the water purification systems mean chemical-free technologies lead to separation of solutes from water through a semi-permeable membrane with tiny pores. The function of the membrane is obstructing to pass through the substances and microorganisms from water, which are larger than the pores of the membrane to make safe water.

Non-Electrical Filtration Systems

  1. Ceramic Filtration (CF)
  2. MICRO Filtration (MF)        
  3. ULTRA Filtration (UF)

There is no fundamental difference between CF, MF, and UF. All of these filtration systems are separate based on structural size and pore size of cartridges or membrane for size exclusion or particle capture. Filter with smaller pore size is better than others.

Ceramic Filtration (CF)Micro-Filtration (UF)ULTRA Filtration (UF)
The standard pore size of the membrane0.3 – 0.8 micron0.1 micron0.01 micron
Capable to removeSome particulates and colloidsSome particulates, colloids, fungus and algaeSome particulates, colloids,  fungus, algae, and bacteria
Unable to removeFungus, algae, bacteria, Virus, Ions and Molecular substancesBacteria, Virus, Ions and Molecular substancesVirus, Ions and Molecular substances

Electrical Filtration Systems

  1. Multi or Nano Filtration (NF)         
  2. Hyper Filtration (RO: Reverse osmosis) 

Multi or Nano Filtration (NF)

It is an electrical water filtering process by a porous (0.001 micron) membrane capable to remove maximum polyvalent ions and micro-organisms and preserve cations by an electronic collector of positive charge which absorbs harmful substances with a negative charge. Multidimensional research is now underway about this filtration system and it is still now commercially unavailable.

Hyper Filtration- (RO: Reverse osmosis)

Reverse osmosis (RO) is a water purification process through the tiniest porous (0.0001 microns) membrane utilizing external pressure electric booster pump against normal osmotic pressure. The membrane allows only water to pass through with some monovalent ions. Larger matters than 0.0001 microns must be rejected by this membrane. It works as a reducer of TDS as well as insoluble substances and microorganisms from water.

Comparison between Nano Filtration and Hyper (RO) filtration Systems:

 NANO FiltrationHyper Filtration (RO)
The standard pore size of the membrane0.001 micron0.0001 micron
Capable to removeParticulates, colloids, fungus, algae, bacteria, Virus, Multivalent Ions, large  molecular substancesParticulates, colloids, fungus, algae, bacteria, Virus, Ions, All molecular substances
Unable to removeMonovalent Ions, Some tiny molecular substancesVery few amounts (2-3%) of monovalent Ions which are tiny in size. 

Note: Except halogens most of the tinier monovalent Ions, are positive to human health. An extra activated carbon stage (T33) is used after RO membrane stage in a RO water purifier toabsorb existing halogens. So,these few amount (3%) of monovalent Ions consisted water is considered as safe potable water. But these ions should be removed for the medicine production purpose in pharmaceutical industries with following some process.

Available Water Purifier In Bangladesh

  1. UV water purifier: Using disinfection technology by electromagnetic radiation
  2. CF water purifier: Using membrane with pore size of 0.3- 0.8 micron
  3. UF water purifier: Using membrane with pore size of 0.01 micron
  4. RO water purifier: Using membrane with pore size of 0.0001 micron
    • Combined (RO + UV) water purifier: Using membrane with a pore size of 0.0001 microns with disinfection technology by electromagnetic radiation

Latest water purifier

RO Water purifier

The first commercial RO water treatment plant was built in 1960. This technology is now recognized by the Public Health and Safety organization – NSF, American National Standards Institute(ANSI), Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). It is certified by the International organization for Standardization (ISO) 9001: 2008and also appreciated by the World Health Organization (WHO). As a result, the RO filtration method is applying worldwide as the latest water purifying technology due to the highest effectivity which is commercially known as RO water Purifier.

RO Water Purifier

This purifier consists of RO membrane. Standardpore size of RO membrane is 0.0001 micron. So that, it is capable to capture maximum substances from water. It is the main component (stage) of RO Water purifier.

In order to increase the longevity of RO Membrane until the highest tentative period, multiple additional stages have to adjust asPre RO stages.

Commonly Used Pre RO Stages Are

  • PP Membrane (Sediment Filter)
  • GAC (Granular Activated Carbon) Filter
  • CTO (Chlorine Taste and Odor: Activated Carbon) Filter

To make the water mineral-rich and increase the pH level of potable purified water by RO membrane some additional stages may be adjusted as post RO stages

Commonly Used Post RO Stages Are

  • Mineral and Alkaline cartridge
  • T33(Activated Carbon)
  • UV filter  

Required stages for an RO water purifier depend on the water quality of the source. RO water purifier generally consisted of 6 to 10 stages including RO membrane.

PP Membrane (Sediment Filter)

This is a porous membrane made from melt-blown polypropylene (one kind of thermoplastic) known as a sediment filter. It is mainly used as the first stage of RO water purifier for remove insoluble particles (Soil, Sand, Scales, organic wastes. etc.) from water.

The performance of the PP membrane depends on the fineness of its pore size.PP with finer (Lower) pore size considered a better one and takes a higher price than others. Generally, finer porous PP is high in weight within minimum space. Weight varies according to length.

Commercially Available PP In Bangladesh:

  • Length:

Regular size: 10″ & 20″
Customized size: 5″, 6″, 8″ etc.

  • Pore size:

General: 5 microns, 1 micron and 0.45 micron

  • Weight:

Length 10″: 75, 80, 100, 125 and 150 gram
Length 20″: 150, 160, 200, 250 and 300 gram

Note: PP of regular size is available in public market. But, customized size of any stage is only available at responsible distributor company. For this reason, regular size PP is preferable. Prior to buy a RO water purifier, we have to determine which purifier contains regular sized and finest porous PP. Finest in Bangladesh: 0.45 micron pore size with 150 gram (10″) & 300 gram (20″)

Activated Carbon Filters

Carbon Filters

Active carbon is produced from raw organic materials, such as coconut shells or coal. Heat, in the absence of oxygen, is used to increase (activate) the surface area of the carbon.

A grading system is applicable for the quality judgment of coconut shell carbon. Iodine number is a widely used parameter to assess the quality of activated carbon for estimation about it’s simplicity, rapid absorbent quality, surface area, and porosity. The iodine number is defined as the milligrams of iodine absorbed by one gram refers to the absorption of halogens

Three types of activated carbon filters are used for water purify as additional stages with RO water purifier.

GAC: Granular Activated Carbon

Carbon Filters

GAC removes particularly certain-dissolved organic chemicals. However, other chemicals, like iron and nitrate do not attract the carbon and are not removed by GAC, but this filter is also capable to remove fumes and some objectionable odors of water.

CTO Membrane

Chlorine Taste and Odor (CTO) membrane is an activated carbon filter coated by a porous blanket used for absorbing dissolved chlorine, unusual Tastes, and objectionable odors.

T33 Membrane


T33 Membrane Inline Granular Activated Carbon Filter (T33)used to absorbing fumes or halogens, improve the taste of potable water and increasing the bleach of water.

Commercially available activated carbon for GAC CTO and T33 stages in Bangladesh:

  • Coconut shell carbon and coal carbon
  • Grade: Iodine – 300, Iodine – 800, Iodine – 1100, Iodine – 1200
  • Without grading

Note: As iodine number is quality indicator of carbon filter. So, highest iodine number is preferable for carbon filter. Best quality in market of Bangladesh is Iodine – 1200 grade Coconut shell carbon.

Reverse Osmosis (RO) Membrane


RO membrane is the main component of RO water purifier. Standard RO membrane consists of the tiniest pore (0.0001 microns) formed by typically either cellulose acetate or polysulfone coated with aromatic polyamides3. The capability of Membrane (Water filtration rate) rated as GPD (Gallons per day). The membrane of higher GPD considered as powerful. Accuracy and quality depend on uniform reduction quality and higher surface area which increase GPD (gallon per day). But, we have to confirm RO membrane is original (standard).

Power of Commercially Available RO Membrane

  • For residential use: 50, 75, 100 GPD Power
  • For commercial use: 200, 300, 400, 800 GPD Power

Note: Uniform reduction rate 97%-98% makes safe water. 100 GPD Power is the best for domestic use and 200 GPD is suitable for official use.

Booster Pump

Booster Pump

RO water purifier depends on electric power; the booster pump is an adjusted power supply device used to apply external pressure on RO membrane. The power of the booster pump should be matched to the power of RO membrane, otherwise, it results in the defective output.

The capability of the booster pump rated as GPD (Gallons per day). Booster pump of higher GPD considered as more powerful, and quality depends on better performance with longevity.

Power of Booster Pump

  • For residential use: 50, 75, 100 GPD Power
  • For commercial use: 200, 300, 400, 800 GPD Power

Note: Original 100 GPD Power is the best for domestic use and 200 GPD is suitable for official use.

Reservoir Tank

Reservoir Tank

There are three types of reservoir tanks available in the market of Bangladesh.

  1. Lid Consisted Tank: This tank is cheaper than any other tank. Though it is used with some RO water purifier, there is a possibility of contamination by air contact and encroaching insects within a short time. Besides this, this type of reservoir tank becomes dirt periodically due to continuous dust allocation.
  2. Air Tight Tank: This tank is free from air and insect contamination. But it is unable to create sufficient pressure on water flow; so, this doesn’t allow multiple faucet facility.
  3. Air Pressure Tank: This tank is free from re-pollution. It is capable to create enough pressure (unit: PSI) for proper water flow through the faucet. So, this tank allows double faucet installation with RO water purifier.

Example: Nearly 50 PSI required for RO water purifier.

Note: As the reservoir tank is used for preserve purified water after filtration, it should be food grade maintained and capable to protect the purified water from re-pollution. Alongside  ability to create proper pressure for water flow through multiple faucet is important for“drinking and kitchen water solution”. Only air pressure tank is consisted with these qualities. So, Food grade maintained air pressure tank is preferable for domestic and official use.

Mineral and Alkaline Cartridge

Mineral and Alkaline

Generally, RO filtered water is considered as free from micro-organisms and any substances. Purified water is bitter in taste. As the required amount of minerals for human health can be consumed from vegetables, fruits, species, fishes and meats as food ingredients; so, it is not essential from water. But In order to improve the taste of potable water, minerals may be added with purified water.

World Health Organization (WHO) recommended pH level of potable water is within 6.5 – 8.5. Besides this, alkaline water is positively ionized which is beneficial for human health development. For this reason, some health favorable alkaline may be used to increase pH level of potable water.

Note: To enrich water quality we need to add healthy mineral and alkaline cartridge should be added as a post RO stage.  Though mineral and alkaline is rarely found as combined tube in market, But combined tube is preferable.

UV Filter

UV Filter

It is a filtering device depends on electromagnetic radiation using the proper electrical power supply. It is capable to kill micro-organisms from transparent water but unable to remove substances. So this device may use as an extra stage for secondary disinfection. Electricity requirement varies on the measurement of consumption.

Water Faucet

Water Faucet

It is a device for delivering water from a plumbing system made of metal or plastic. Faucet may be compacted with purifiers or portable.

  • Compacted faucet may not convenient for all members of the family. Alongside, if the faucet is tangible for all, children may keep running the faucet unnecessarily several times may cause wastage of purified water.
  • A portable faucet may be installed anywhere in house. But if a faucet is placed at such a place where water can be dropped on the floor; that may cause wet and slippery floors as well as increase the risk of accidental injury for family members.
  • Metal faucet is strong and long-lasting, but there is a possibility of rust allocation on an iron faucet. So stainless steel (alloy) faucet is preferable due to its rust-free specialty. 
  • Single faucet may not be enough for family use. In some purifier extra faucet can be installed. Air pressure tank is a prior condition of using a double faucet.

Note:In order to avoid the risk of accidental injury faucet should be in basin. So portable multiplestainless steel (alloy)faucet is a significant speciality to choice better faucet for family and official use.

Maintenance And Customer Care of RO Water Purifier

Each stage of RO water purifier has different longevity depends on the water quality of source and amount of consumption. Different stages need to change periodically according to water quality. Changing of stages and service support professional installation and friendly customer care are significant issues. Defective installation resulting in ineffective filtration with poor outcomes.Improper Installation systems

Improper Installation Systems

Improper Installation
  • Parallel or bypass installation of any stages resulting in high TDS and substance contamination
  • Air contacted reservoir tank causing re-pollution.

We should avoid improper installation in order to get safe water.

Proper Installation system

Proper Installation system
  • Series Installation of stages
  • Strong wall setup (Ex: Large and rust-free screw)
  • Air pressure reservoir tank to protect the safe water from re-pollution
  • Significantly separate drainage line.

All companies don’t have a customer care service. It rated by using CRM software and service charge.

Key Points to Determine Best RO Water Purifier

  • The pore size of PP (Sediment); i.e. 0.45 micron in best.
  • The efficiency of RO membrane Filter (97%-98% reduction)
  • GPD of RO membrane and Booster Pump
  • Iodine Grade of activated carbon (coconut shell); i.e. GAC, CTO & T33
  • Portability of stainless steel (rust free) faucet with multiple faucet facility
  • Food grade maintenance of air pressure tank.
  • Availability of filter and accessories in the market.
  • Better and friendly customer care services

If we read this article, it may be helpful to make proper decisions to identify the best RO water purifier. Thus the effort of ULTIMA will be successful. Honesty (truthfulness) is the noble and public health safety is the humanitarian Goal of ULTIMA (Your best family friend).

RO Purifier: Safe Water for Prevention of Enteric Fever

RO Purifier: Safe Water for Prevention of Enteric Fever

Prevention of Enteric Fever is a challenge for everybody. Social awareness is the key to preventing enteric fever.

Name of Diseases

Typhoid Fever and Paratyphoid fever

Typhoid and paratyphoid fever is a major cause of illness in most developing countries, including Bangladesh. It remains the most common bloodstream infection in many resource-poor settings. It requires the ingestion of at least 105 Salmonella bacteria at a time to produce typhoid. Recently estimated 22 million new typhoid cases occur each year in the world, with some 0.2 million of these resulting in death. Paratyphoid fever is similar in its symptoms to typhoid fever, but typhoid fever has a higher fatality rate. Bangladesh is located in a region where typhoid is highly endemic.  Prevention of enteric fever is a gradual process and only social awareness can mitigate the disease.

prevention of enteric fever

Source of Infection

Food & Drinks (Raw vegetables, meat, seafood, milk & water)

Responsible Microorganisms

Size & Shape: Rod Shaped 0.7 – 1.5 µm by 2.0 – 5.0 µm

Source of contamination: Stool and urine of infected persons

Note: Salmonella absorbs oxygen as a parasite from human body to live and reproduction. Human may be infected due to take Salmonella contaminated water and food, sometimes may die also. Case-fatality rates of 10% can be reduced to less than 1% with appropriate antibiotic therapy. Children and Adolescents (up to 19 years) are more vulnerable to this infection.

The Root of transmission: Digestive system (Mouth & Nose)

Clinical Symptoms

  • Fever (Temperature ≤1030 F and persist 7 days or more)
  • Headache
  • Nausea, Vomiting
  • Diarrhea (Sometimes bloody)
  • Urinary Tract Infection (UTI), Nephritis
  • Splenomegaly
  • Abdominal pain or cramp
  • Constipation
  • Gastroenteritis
  • Cough
  • Bradycardia

Incubation Period: 8 – 14 days

Symptoms existence: 2 – 6 weeks with possibilities of recurrent contamination


Management of Typhoid Patients

  • Oral Saline for dehydration management
  • Consultation with medical doctor as soon as possible
  • Proper antibiotic (Directed by physician) after confirm diagnosis

Vaccines for Typhoid

  • There are three types of typhoid vaccines licensed for use:*
  • Typhoid conjugate vaccine (TCV)
  • The unconjugated Vi polysaccharide (ViPS) vaccine
  • The live attenuated Ty21a vaccine.

In 2018, WHO Recommended

  • The first prequalified TCV for intramuscular administration of a single dose (0.5 mL) in children ≥ 6 months of age and in adults up to 45 years of age.
  • The VIPs vaccine is recommended for intramuscular or subcutaneous administration in individuals 2 years of age and older.
  • Ty21a vaccine is available in enteric-coated capsules recommended for oral administration on alternate days in a three-dose regimen in persons above 6 years of age.

Repeat vaccination is recommended for VIPs every three years, and for Ty21a every three to seven years, depending on national policies. There are currently no licensed vaccines against paratyphoid fever and iNTS disease. Prevention of enteric fever is not impossible but necessary steps need to be taken.

Cause of Salmonella Contamination

  • Defective sewage system (Housing or farming)
  • The defective or unclean water supply system

Prevention from Salmonella Pollution

  • Drink safe water
  • Maintain hygiene and use safe water including cooking food
  • Develop sewage and water supply system, sanitary disposal of excreta
  • Preserve separately raw and cooked food
  • Use RO purifier to ensure safe drinking and kitchen water

MICRO Filtration: Pore size: 0.1 micron
ULTRA Filtration: Pore size: 0.01 micron
NANO Filtration: Pore size: 0.001 micron
Reverse Osmosis (RO) Filtration: Pore size: 0.0001 micron

Note: The pore size of the membrane of RO Purifier is too small than the size of Salmonella. For this reason only RO purifier with accurate size (0.0001 microns) of membrane capable to prevent Salmonella and ensure 100% safe drinking & kitchen water Solution.

To ensure pure drinking water and health safety ULTIMA CARE brought RO Purifier for you. The process of 6-10 steps water purifier prevents harmful germs and provides you with 100% safe water for drinking. Prevention of enteric fever will no longer serious issues if safe water treatment is insured.

Ultima RO Water Purifier
Ultima RO Water Purifier

Edited By:
Dr. Hefjur Rahman Ojaer


  • https://www.dhakatribune.com/uncategorized/2013/06/21/treating-typhoid
  • https://www.who.int/immunization/monitoring_surveillance/burden/vpd/WHO_SurveillanceVaccinePreventable_21_Typhoid_R1.pdf?ua=1
  • https://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/handle/10665/272272/WER9313.pdf?ua=1
RO Purifier: The Best Way To Prevent Coliform

RO Purifier: The Best Way To Prevent Coliform

Coliform bacteria will not likely cause illness, but prevent coliform bacteria is very necesary. However, their presence in drinking water indicates that disease-causing organisms (pathogens) could be in the water system.

Coliform bacteria are defined as rod-shaped (2 microns long and 0.5 microns wide in diameter) Gram-negative non-spore-forming bacteria. Typically found in various foods, soil, and warm-blooded animal intestines. This bacteria can ferment lactose with the production of acid and gas when incubated at 35–37°C.

prevent coliform

All types of coliforms are not pathogenic. Out of Fecal Coliforms (Subgroup of Total Coliforms), some categories of Escherichia coli are pathogenic.

Escherichia coli contaminated water or food may affect human beings severely. Children are more vulnerable than older and sometimes cause death due to weak immune system against this infection.

Classification of Coliform:

  • Fecal Coliform is a subgroup of Total Coliforms.
  • Escherichia coli is a subsection of Fecal Coliform
  • Some special types of Escherichia coli are pathogenic
  • Total Coliform g Fecal Coliform g Escherichia Coli g Pathogenic E. coli

All Pathogenic E. Coli And Diseases Symptoms:

  • Enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC): Diarrhoea
  • Enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC): Septic Shock, meningitis
  • Enteroinvasive E. coli (EIEC): Profuse diarrhea, high fever.
  • Enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC): Gastroenteritis, enterocolitis, bloody diarrhea
  • Enteroaggregative E. coli (EAEC): Diarrhoea with severe dehydration
  • Uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC): Urinary Tract Infection (UTI)
  • Verotoxin-producing E. coli: Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome (HUS)

Note: Among all Pathogenic E. coli most harmful is E. coli (O157:H7) responsible for intestinal hemorrhage

Source of Infection

Contaminated food and drinks

  • Raw food: Vegetables, Fruits, Leaf, Root, and stems.
  • Cooked food: May contaminated by preservation with contaminated raw food
  • Drinks: Water, juice, and milk
  • Infected Person (Person to person: Touch of infected)

The Root of Transmission

  • Oral (Throat & Digestive System)
  • Facial (Eye, Skin, Ear)
  • Nasal (Throat & Respiratory System)

Symptoms of Infection

  • Nausea, Vomiting
  • Diarrhoea (Often Bloody or Profuse)
  • Fever (100-101°C)
  • Urinary Tract Infection (UTI)
  • Abdominal Cramp
  • Gastroenteritis, Enterocolitis
  • Acute respiratory tract infection (ARI), Pneumonia
  • Septic Shock
  • Meningitis

Vulnerable Peoples

  • Child
  • Kitchen worker (Housewife, chef & cook)
  • Cleaner
  • Swimmer, Fisherman or boatman

Note: Children are especially vulnerable for person to person contamination

Incubation Period

1- 4 Days

Symptoms Exists

Highest 10 Days (Continuous use of polluted water increases possibilities of recurrent contamination; children are a more vulnerable group for such kind of infection)

Patient Management

  • Oral Saline for Diarrhoea and Dehydration management
  • Paracetamol for Fever
  • Consultation with Medical Doctor as soon as possible
  • Proper antibiotic (Directed by the physician) for infection control

Presence Testing

  • By Using – Coliform Test Kit
  • In Laboratory – Gram Stain

Causes of Coliform Pollution

  • Defective sewage system (Housing or farming)
  • Defective manure fertilizer apply system
  • Defective or unclean water supply system
  • Heavy (excessive) rainfall against poor drainage system

Disinfection Processes

  • Thermal Effect (Boiling or Cooking more than 720 °C or 160 °C)
  • Halogenations (Using halogen tablets to kill coliform)
  • Ultraviolet Light (UV light units may be recommended for water supplies were total coliform bacteria > 1000 colonies per 100 ml or fecal coliform bacteria > 100 colonies per 100 ml)

Ozonation (This system is an effective disinfection system, but more costly)

Note: Disinfection systems are capable to kill coliform of water but unable to remove cadaver of microorganisms, TDS (Total Dissolved Solids) and insoluble substances. For this reason, in order to purify the water (Remove all unwanted substances), we have to use more effective filtration system (RO Water Purifier)

Prevent coliform bacteria

  • Prevention from coliform Pollution
  • Preserve separately raw and cooked food
  • Drinking safe water and prevent coliform bacteria
  • Use pure water for cooking and washing
  • Use RO purifier to ensure safety

Purification Systems Of Water

  • MICRO Filtration: Pore size: 0.1 micron
  • ULTRA Filtration: Pore size: 0.01 micron
  • NANO Filtration: Pore size: 0.001 micron
  • Reverse Osmosis (RO) Filtration: Pore size: 0.0001 micron

Note: Only RO purifier with accurate size (0.0001 micron) of membrane capable to ensure 100% safe drinking & kitchen water Solution

To ensure pure drinking water and health safety ULTIMA CARE brought RO Purifier for you. Drinking safe water is a key way to prevent coliform bacteria.

ultima ro water purifier

Edited By:
Dr. Hefjur Rahman Ojaer


https:// https://www.webmd.com/a-to-z-guides/e-coli-infection-topic-overview